The Hindu–Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system is a positional decimal numeral system, nowadays the most common symbolic representation of numbers in the world. It was invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians. The system was adopted, by Persian mathematicians (Al-Khwarizmi's c. 825 book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals) and Arab mathematicians (Al-Kindi's c. 830 volumes On the Use of the Indian Numerals) by the 9th century. It later spread to the western world by the High Middle Ages.
The system is based upon ten (originally nine) different glyphs. The symbols (glyphs) used to represent the system are in principle independent of the system itself. The glyphs in actual use are descended from Indian Brahmi numerals and have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages.