Chapter One




One of the most popular and modern experiments of our time is that involving carbonated drink (preferably Diet Coke) and candy (perhaps Mentos). It is an exciting experiment that comes with lots of fun and it will surely amaze your friends and family. It is highly recommended that you do this experiment outside, not indoors and under the supervision of an adult. This experiment is meant to test the explosive capacity of any brand of carbonated drink, including soda.


Materials needed:


  • A bottle of Diet or Zero Coke or Pepsi or any other carbonated drink.


  • About half a pack of Mentos candy




Once again, please do not carry out this experiment inside the house or where you can get into trouble for spilling Diet Coke everywhere. You may do it outside or on the grass.


Step 1:


Place a bottle of any carbonated drink (maybe Diet Coke) in a standing position and then unscrew the lid.


Step 2:


Reduce the quantity of the Diet Coke by pouring out some in a cup.


Step 3:


Quickly drop 3 pieces of the Mentos candy at the same time into the bottle of Diet Coke, and then move away very fast from the table and watch from a safe distance the explosion that would take place.


If you have done the experiment properly, you will notice a huge and beautiful-looking geyser of Diet Coke or your favourite carbonated drink, with roughly a height of 9 metres (29 feet), flying out of the bottle!.




Science behind the experiment:


This type of reaction is caused by the presence of carbon dioxide inside the Diet Coke and the little dimples found on the Mentos candy tablets.

Also what makes soda drinks bubbly is the carbon dioxide that is pumped inside during production at the factory. It remains mixed with the drink without being released unless you pour it out in a glass. Part of it can also be released if you shake the bottle of carbonated drink before opening the lid. This means there is a whole lot of carbon dioxide gas waiting to escape from the liquid in form of bubbles.


Dropping Mentos candy into the Diet Coke speeds up this process by breaking or reducing the surface tension of the liquid, and also allowing bubbles to form on the surface area of the candy. Pieces of Mentos candy are covered in tiny dimples (a bit like a golf ball), which dramatically increases the surface area and allows a huge amount of bubbles to form.


The experiment works better with Diet Coke than any other carbonated drink, due to its slightly different ingredients and the fact that it isn't so sticky. I also found out that recently bottled Diet Coke contains more carbon dioxide, hence more effective and suitable for this experiment than the ones that have been bottled for a longer time. This is mainly because the ones that have stayed long on the shelves seem to have lost some of their fizz. Please check the bottle to see the date of manufacture.




Chapter Two




Have you ever wondered how spies and secret agents manage to send out secret messages? Well, something called the invisible ink is the answer! This special ink might sound high tech or Greek in your ears, but you can actually create—and read—a top secret message with one simple kitchen ingredient: lemon/grape. George Washington's army used this same concept to send out secret messages during the American Revolutionary War.


There are several ways to make an invisible ink and below you will find a few different recipes you can use to produce your own invisible ink, how it works and how you can turn it to a secret agent or a substance for sending out secret messages. This experiment illustrates what is known in Science as oxidation reaction.


Production of Invisible Ink with the use of Baking Soda


Materials needed:

  • Lemon/grape

  • Baking soda

  • Cotton bud

  • Bowl

  • Water

  • Paint brush

  • Paper

  • Source of heat (hair dryer, lamp, sun and so on).




Step 1


Mix about two spoonfuls of baking soda and 1/4 of a cup (60 ml) of water.


Step 2


Dip a cotton bud/paint brush into the solution of baking soda and water and use it to write your secret message on a sheet of white paper and allow it to dry completely.


Step 3


Cut the lemon/ grape into two equal parts and squeeze the juice into a bowl.





Step 4


To read the secret message, dip a paint brush or sponge into the lemon juice and rub same across the paper containing your message. An adult should hold the sheet of paper over a heat source such as stove/ hair dryer/ lamp etc. once the paper is dried the secret message appears and becomes visible. Remember that lemon juice stains!




When you painted the paper with lemon/grape juice solution, the carbon-based compounds were absorbed into the paper's fibers.

When you heated the paper, the heat caused some of the chemical bonds to break down, and consequently the carbon.

Once the carbon came into contact with the air, it went through a process called oxidation. One effect of this is the appearance of a darkish brown colour. Oxidation does not always need heat to occur as some fruits can on their own turn brown as a result of oxidation. For instance, the colour of an apple or slice of pear that has been exposed for some time can easily turn brown.

A type of acid is found in lemon juice which reacts with the baking soda to give it a different colour that appears anywhere the secret message is written.



Making Invisible Ink with the use of Milk


Materials needed


  • Liquid milk

  • Bowl

  • Cotton bud

  • Paper

  • Source of heat (stove/gas cooker, iron, lamp and so on).


Step 1


Put a little quantity of liquid milk in a small bowl.


Step 2


Dip a cotton bud into the milk and use it to write a message on a piece of paper. Then allow your message to dry up completely.


Step 3


Publisher: BookRix GmbH & Co. KG

Publication Date: 09-17-2020
ISBN: 978-3-7487-5785-6

All Rights Reserved

I dedicate this book to God who gave me the grace and inspiration to write this book.

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