© Copyright 2022 Nick Bryce.
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1000 Facts About Stranger Things
Stranger Things is science fiction horror show that streams on Netflix. It is a love letter to 80s pop culture - most specifically Stephen King, Steven Spielberg, and John Carpenter. Its range of influences is vast though and takes in everything from John Hughes to Lovecraft to Clive Barker to Project MKUltra. 1000 Facts About Stranger Things contains one thousand fascinating and eclectic facts that encompass all facets of this amazingly popular show. If you think you know absolutely everything there is to know about Stranger Things then this book would beg to differ! Hopefully there will be plenty here that is new - even to the most dedicated Stranger Things superfan.
The facts that follow are diverse and cover all aspects of the show. Cast, crew, music, Easter eggs, stunts, behind the scenes, observations, fan theories, characters, casting, Dungeons & Dragons, games, merch, goofs, viewing figures, episodes, seasons, production notes, origins, and so on. The premise of Stranger Things is relatively simple on the surface - despite the scientific trappings and numerous pop culture Easter eggs.
Dredging up inspiration from many novels, stories, movies, tv shows, and video games, the show concerns a group of characters in a small (and fictional) Indiana town named Hawkins. The local Department of Energy - in the form of the Hawkins Lab - has opened a dimensional rift (rather like in Stephen King's The Mist) which is a portal to a hostile and nightmare version of our own world. A faceless monster (which the boys in the show dub the Demogorgon because of their love of Dungeons & Dragons) begins to move to and thro from this world and ours.
A little boy named Will Byers is pulled into the other dimension (dubbed the Upside Down by the kids) and so a search for him begins with police chief Hopper, his mother Joyce Byers, and Will's friends all conducting their own investigations. Into this mix we throw Eleven, a little girl with telekinetic powers who escaped from the Hawkins Lab. She is secretly sheltered by Will's friends and might be the key to finding him. A teenager named Barb is also snared by the monster and her friend Nancy also becomes embroiled in seeking to get to the bottom of the strange events happening around the fringes of this small town.
Season two is a slightly more expansive affair and concerns the 'Mind Flayer' (aka the Shadow Monster) - a huge terrifying 'big boss' of the Upside Down who possesses Will. Once again, Hawkins is infiltrated by Upside Down creatures and all hell breaks loose. Season three throws a neon drenched shopping mall and Cold War baddies from the Soviet Union into the mix and as for season four, well, Stranger Things 4 is the biggest and boldest season yet. The book that follows contains a positive slew of facts about all four seasons of Stranger Things.
Despite the many influences of Stranger Things (which the show doesn't shy away from), it still feels unique enough to stand on its own feet. There is genuine horror, action, and plenty of wit from both the cast and the scripts. The show is beautifully designed and has a memorable synth score by Survive. At its best, Stranger Things is about as much fun as a tv show can get and each new season is eagerly anticipated (and rapidly binged when it arrives). So, let's go ahead and wallow in Stranger Things and the wonderful world it has created. Hopefully there will be plenty of facts and trivia in this book that even the most dedicated of fans might not have known before.
Dustin Henderson's trucker cap in the first two seasons was kept secure in a special box between Gaten Matarazzo's scenes because the costume department were rather paranoid about losing it. They evidently didn't have an exact duplicate.
It is estimated that Millie Bobby Brown only had dialogue for about three minutes of Eleven's total screentime in season one. Eleven has more screentime (about sixty minutes) than anyone in season one so this is pretty remarkable.
Gaten Matarazzo said that on Stranger Things they are supplied with authentic vintage 1980s underwear by the costume department but he deduced at some point he was the only cast member who was actually bothering to wear it.
Stranger Things makeup artist Amy L. Forsythe said she came up with her own backstory concerning who did Eleven's makeup for the Snow Ball dance in Stranger Things 2. Amy said that Hopper would obviously have no clue about makeup and so probably asked Nancy. Nancy, in turn, probably borrowed some makeup from her mother Karen.
This then, in a circuitous way, provides a perfectly logical explanation for why Eleven has purple eyeshadow at the Snow Ball!
The term "Demogorgon" first appeared in the 4th Century Latin poem Thebaid by Placidus. The poem described a demon who must not be named (which is all very Lovecraftian).
In season three, Dacre Montgomery as Billy Hargrove has a skull tattoo on his arm. Originally, the skull was going to have an eyepatch. In the end though they decided to veto the eyepatch because they felt it might come across as too much of an on the nose reference to The Goonies.
Amy L. Forsythe said that the fertilizer we see Mrs Driscoll eating in Stranger Things 3 was in reality made up of pulse honey almond granola, chocolate powder, espresso coffee grounds, and various food dyes. It was difficult to concoct this mixture because it obviously had to be edible for the actress but also still look like real fertilizer.
Shannon Purser as Barb Holland only had about thirty lines of dialogue in her time on the show.
The mouth and the head of the Demogorgon in Stranger Things somewhat resembles a Rafflesia arnoldi. Rafflesia arnoldii, the corpse flower or giant padma, is a species of flowering plant in the parasitic genus Rafflesia.
The makeup department on Stranger Things have varying viscosities of fake blood for Eleven's nosebleeds. This is so they can control how fast and how far the blood drips.
The Demogorgon in Dungeons & Dragons has two heads. The heads are named Aemeul and Hethradiah.
Gaten Matarazzo said that Dustin Henderson only had two lines in the first script he read for Stranger Things (or Montauk as it would have been called at the time). The character of Dustin was obviously expanded into a much bigger part. Gaten said his agent was very annoyed when he was cast as Dustin rather than Mike or Lucas in Stranger Things because the agent presumed the part of Dustin was quite a minor part. It all turned out fine in the end
When they wanted to give Will Byers a green tongue in Stranger Things 2 to convey the dark possessed version of the character, the makeup department experimented with sucking rainbow-coloured lollipops to see if this would have the desired effect. However the lollipops didn't turn out to be consistent enough in their effect so in the end they used green cake frosting to give Noah Schnapp a murky looking tongue.
The Demogorgon killing Barb while Nancy is upstairs with Steve in season one is a twist on the vintage horror movie trope where the most promiscuous characters are usually bumped off first.
The retro Reebok sneakers Millie Bobby Brown wears as Eleven in Stranger Things 3 were exceptionally hard to find and eventually purchased by the costume department at a vintage Atlanta market. Atlanta is where Stranger Things, despite being set in Indiana, is shot.
Over fifty million people around the world have played the board game Dungeons & Dragons since it was invented in 1974.
In 2014 it was estimated that the Eggo brand had a 60% share of the frozen waffle market in the United States. This market share would soon increase even further in the years to come thanks to Stranger Things. By then the Eggo brand had long since been sold to Kelloggs.
Finn Wolfhard said he somehow managed to cut his chin on a desk around the time they made season one of Stranger Things so this had to be covered up by makeup.
The Hawkins school science teacher's name (Scott Clarke) is a mash-up of the film director Ridley Scott and science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke.
In the seventies there was a secret program called Project Stargate which attempted to see if mind readers and psychics could be used to spy on the Soviet Union. The famous 'spoon bender', illusionist and alleged psychic Uri Geller was a part of these experiments. The Duffer Brothers patently read about all of these types of secret projects and incorporated them into the mythology of Stranger Things.
Millie Bobby Brown said that when she finished shooting the first season of Stranger Things she went back to England and genuinely wondered if she would ever get another acting job again. She had no idea that Stranger Things was going to become such a sensation and make her so famous.
The walkie-talkies that the boys use in season of Stranger Things were purchased at a Long Beach flea market by the prop master Lynda Reiss.
Eleven was initially only supposed to steal one box of Eggos from the store in season one but Millie Bobby Brown thought the scene would work better if Eleven picked up more boxes.
Gaten Matarazzo said that when they were shooting season one of Stranger Things there were a few comical mishaps with the long antenna on the walkie-talkies. He said Millie Bobby Brown in particular got clobbered a few times by accident.
The character of Eleven is estimated to have killed around twenty people in the first three seasons of Stranger Things.
The first sensory deprivation tank (or chamber) was invented by John C. Lilly in 1954. Lily was an American physician, neuroscientist, psychoanalyst, psychonaut, philosopher, writer and inventor. The idea of sensory deprivation tanks is that you are removed from all external stimuli as a means to explore the nature of human consciousness.
Sensory deprivation tanks obviously play a big part in the first season of Stranger Things. Trivia - Lily was friends with counter-culture icon Timothy Leary (who was an advocate of the therapeutic benefits of the mind-altering drug LSD). Timothy Leary was the godfather of Stranger Things star Winona Ryder.
Horror icon Robert Englund is in Stranger Things 4 as a killer named Victor Creel. Englund is of course best known for playing the razor-gloved Freddy Krueger eight times in The Nightmare on Elm Street series (plus Freddy vs Jason - where he squared off with Crystal Lake's infamous hockey mask wearing lunatic Jason Vorhees).
Englund was born in 1947 and studied classical theatre at acting school. He had early dreams of being a very serious actor. His initial roles were modest and patchy though, including a bit part in the cult surfing film Big Wednesday and an appearance in Roger Corman's largely forgotten but inventive low-budget Alien clone Galaxy of Terror. It was the V mini-series (where Englund played Willie, the kind alien who joined up with the human resistance) though that gave Englund his first experience of real fame.
V began life as a mini-series and quickly became a huge phenomenon. It was about a group of aliens arriving on Earth in huge flying saucer type crafts. They appear very human and friendly and establish good relations. It's all a front though. They are lizards wearing human masks and intent on pillaging the Earth and using us as food. The aliens (or 'visitors') are basically the Nazis. They have fascist uniforms and symbols and set up a youth movement. Humans are encouraged to collaborate and spy on trouble makers.
V was a huge hit when it first aired and A Nightmare On Elm Street soon followed. Freddy Krueger became hugely popular, a cult film monster not too far off Dracula and The Mummy in terms of fame. It's slightly odd that Freddy was supposed to be a child killer who was murdered and now spends his time bumping off teenagers but ended up with a range of toy dolls and a young fanbase! Englund would have to endure marathon sessions in the make-up chair each time he played Freddy Krueger (Freddy's scarred face resembled the melted cheese on a well done pizza).
Englund has also appeared on a huge amount of television shows. Babylon 5, MacGyver, Walker: Texas Ranger, Masters of Horror, Sliders, Knight Rider, Charmed, and many more. He's also quite a dab hand at voicing villains in cartoons and has been both The Riddler and The Vulture in Justice League, Spider-Man, and Batman animations.
The first season of Stranger Things attracted over 14 million viewers in its first 35 days online.
Gaten Matarazzo said he tried to buy a Dungeons & Dragons set when he was cast in Stranger Things but he couldn't find one in the shops anywhere and had to resort to eBay.
Mike Wheeler is the first character in Stranger Things to use the term the Upside Down.
Finn Wolfhard said that when production began on the first season of Stranger Things he was so excited to be there he literally didn't stop talking for weeks. Finn said he liked the concept of Stranger Things so much he would happily have played any role in the show.
The makeup department on Stranger Things 3 complained when the catering department served the cast freeze-pops during a warm spell. Freeze-pops are a nightmare for the makeup people and continuity because all the actors are liable to end up with orange or yellow tongues after eating them.
When the third season was released, an entertainment website complained that the subtitles for Stranger Things 3 made too much use of the words "squelching" and "squelch" in relation to the Flayer's body horror shenanigans. What words were they supposed to use?
Millie Bobby Brown said the worst thing about having extra short hair when she shot season one of Stranger Things was going out in the rain.
Gaten Matarazzo is not related to the actress Heather Matarazzo. Heather Matarazzo (who is best known for the films Welcome to the Dollhouse, The Princess Diaries, and Scream 3) once had to deny stories she was his mother. The confusion probably stemmed from the fact that Gaten's real mother is also named Heather.
Hallmark's Keepsake Ornament collection for the 2020 holiday season included a Demogorgon ornament designed for your Christmas tree.
Noah Schnapp said he was pleasantly surprised to be cast in Stranger Things because he didn't think his auditions were terribly good. Noah was away at summer camp when he got the news that he had been cast as Will Byers. While the rest of the cast were based in Atlanta for production on season one, Noah was slightly different because he commuted between his family home in New York and Atlanta. This was presumably a consequence of the fact that Will Byers is trapped in the Upside Down for much of season one so Noah had less scenes to shoot than the other kids.
When it came to season two, Noah was upgraded to full cast member and was based in Atlanta for the duration of the production. Noah said that on Stranger Things 2 he felt much more like a true part of the Stranger Things family.
Although she tends not to have much dialogue because Eleven is not the most verbose of characters, Millie Bobby Brown still has more overall actual screen time than any other actor in the show when the first three seasons of Stranger Things are all tallied together.
When it became available to stream, eighteen million people watched the whole of Stranger Things 3 inside four days.
Finn Wolfhard said he did not enjoy riding Mike Wheeler's bike in the first season because it was heavy and the gears were messed up. The bikes they used were not authentic 80s bikes but mash-ups constructed to LOOK like period BMX bikes. The reason why they couldn't source authentic 80s bikes is because they required so many for stand-ins, stunts, wear and tear, and stunt-doubles. Yes, even the kids in the first season had their own stunt doubles!
The Duffer Brothers said that they deliberately established in season one that Will Byers liked art and drawing because they knew that somewhere down the line (if Stranger Things got a second season) that Will would use art as a means to convey the nature of the Upside Down visions that plagued him.
When they have to depict blood in a character's mouth (or even near their mouth) in Stranger Things, the makeup department uses a fake blood mixture that is made up of dried cranberries, black cherry Jell-O mix, Emergen-C powder, and some water. Emergen-C is a powdered vitamin supplement. The most important thing is that it has to be safe to go inside the actor's mouth.
Netflix picked up over two million new subscribers in the third quarter of 2016. The spike in subscriptions was attributed to the positive buzz around Stranger Things.
Polish painter Zdzislaw Beksinski was an influence on the look of the Upside Down in Stranger Things. Beksinski's work was known for its nightmarish dystopian surrealism.
Gaten Matarazzo was the first of the kids to be cast in Stranger Things. Noah Schnapp was the last of the kids to be cast. The first adult to be cast was Winona Ryder. By casting Winona Ryder (who was obviously a big name thanks to her long movie career) the producers of Stranger Things were under less pressure to cast 'name' actors in other parts. From their point of view this was a very happy development. Actors like Joe Keery and even David Harbour were not especially famous at all but they were definitely right for the parts allocated to them.
Notice how Steve Harrington looks slightly baffled when Eleven returns at the end of the season two episode The Mind Flayer. This is because Steve has never met Eleven before.
The Demogorgon is one of the monsters in the classic 1983 Commodore 64 computer game Forbidden Forest. Forbidden Forest is an adventure/action game. The player is an archer who is in a forest full of monsters such as giant spiders, frogs, dragons, snakes and wizards. The final enemy is a Demogorgon. There are four difficulty levels: Innocent, Trooper, Daredevil and Crazy. The player has three lives and 40 arrows: they are refreshed at the end of each level. Level 1 involves huge black spiders. Level 2 has giant wasps. Level 3 has monster frogs. Level 4 has a dragon. Level 5 Ghosts and skeletons. Level 6 has a giant snake. Level 7 is the Demogorgon. If the player wins then the game starts with the next highest difficulty. Forbidden Forest is a very creepy and atmospheric game with scary monsters and a great horror style music score.
It is one of the earliest computer games to feature animated blood. The graphics are rudimentary and blocky but they add to the charm. They are almost in the style of an abstract art painting - adding to the surreal atmosphere of the game. Also, the game has parallax scrolling, a day night cycle and some of the monsters move forward from the background. This is, despite its fairly ordinary looking graphics, a very groundbreaking cinematic game for 1983.
The programmer Paul Norman wanted to create a cinematic style experience and his monsters were inspired by the films Night of the Demon (1957), Jason and the Argonauts (1983) and Mysterious Island (1961). Norman had nearly finished the game when the company he was working for Synchro went out of business. Luckily another company - Cosmi - hired him after they saw Forbidden Forest and he was able to complete the game.
Dungeons & Dragons, the board game which features so heavily in the first season of Stranger Things, became caught up in what became known as the Satanic Panic. Religious and parent groups claimed that the game was turning children into Devil worshippers! In 1982, a young man named Irving Pulling shot himself and his family blamed his obsession with Dungeons & Dragons. An organisation called B.A.D.D. (Bothered About Dungeons & Dragons) and Christian groups tried to get the game banned because they believed it celebrated demonology and witchcraft. The game was even banned from a few school libraries in America as a consequence.
In 1979, 16-year-old child prodigy James Dallas Egbert III vanished from his room at Michigan State University. He was later found in tunnels underneath the university. Egbert, who had mental health problems, later shot himself. His disappearance and later death was all blamed on Dungeons & Dragons. The moral panic over Dungeons & Dragons got so bizarre in the end there were even stories about participants in the game seeking to heighten the experience by having Dungeons & Dragons sessions in caves and underground catacombs and then vanishing - never to be seen again.
The fact that anyone believed your average Dungeons & Dragons player was a Devil worshipping occultist who spent their spare time lurking in caves and catacombs was a bit ridiculous to say the least.
In 2015, Finn Wolfhard was cast as Richie Tozier in a film version of Stephen King's IT. Finn was cast by Cary Fukunaga - who was slated to direct IT at the time. Cary Fukunaga then left the production of IT and had be replaced by another director. This meant there was a delay and during that period Finn took part in open auditions for Stranger Things. Had there not been a change of director and delay in the production of IT then Finn would never have been cast as Mike Wheeler in Stranger Things because he simply wouldn't have been available. Cary Fukunaga was eventually replaced by Andy Muschietti as the director of IT. Finn actually had to audition again for Muschietti but it went well and for the second (and thankfully final) time he was given the part of Richie Tozier.
Stephen King's IT was a story the Duffer Brothers had always wanted to turn into a film themselves. It was a complete coincidence that Finn was cast in two such similar projects around the same time. Finn said that because Mike in Stranger Things and Richie in Stephen King's IT are very different characters, it was a fun acting challenge to play both roles around the same time. Finn later shot Stranger Things 3 and his contribution to the IT sequel at the same time. He said this was rather taxing but enjoyable all the same.
The first season of Stranger Things, in terms of its concept, is rather reminiscent of a 1963 Richard Matheson penned Twilight Zone episode called Little Girl Lost. What is the premise of Little Girl Lost? When his daughter Tina (Tracy Stratford) rolls under her bed one night and vanishes, Chris Miller (Robert Sampson) is bewildered as he can hear her calling out from somewhere in the room but can't find Tina anywhere. Equally strange is the fact that the family dog bolted after Tina under the bed and disappeared too. Chris and his wife Ruth (Sarah Marshall) summon family friend and physicist Bill (Charles Aidman) for help with this puzzling mystery and Bill listens to the distant cries (and barks!) for help and comes to a remarkable conclusion. He believes Tina has fallen through a hole into another dimension. The gateway must be somewhere near her bed. Will it be possible to follow Tina there and bring her safely back to our own reality?
Gaten Matarazzo originally auditioned to play Mike Wheeler in Stranger Things. He also read for the part of Lucas Sinclair. Gaten said that when he did his audition he actually read the lines intended for Lucas because there was hardly any dialogue for Dustin. Dustin Henderson was a pretty vague character at the time - at least until Gaten was cast. Gaten said that when he was cast in Stranger hings he had to keep it a secret and was only allowed to tell his immediate family.
One thing that really helped to get Stranger Things into production (after a frustrating raft of early rejections) was Shawn Levy. Levy, a director, producer, and writer best known for films like the Night at the Museum series and Real Steel, encountered the pitch and story treatment for Montauk and loved the concept. He became a director and producer on Stranger Things and a tireless champion for the project.
Rightly or wrongly, Levy was seen as a director of forgettable mainstream comedies (his movies include family comedy Cheaper by the Dozen and the much derided 'new' version of The Pink Panther where Steve Martin replaced the irreplaceable Peter Sellers). His work on Stranger Things showed though that Levy had a good eye for horror and science fiction.
The number of people playing Dungeons & Dragons at home surged by over 20% during the worldwide pandemic and lockdowns.
Over 800,000 people watched the whole of Stranger Things 3 within 24 hours of its release.
The Duffer Brothers said that they vaguely considered pitching Montauk as an anthology show (where each season would have different characters) at one point but were never convinced this was the right approach so quickly went off the idea. The anthology format of the type the Duffers considered has become quite common in modern television through shows like Fargo, American Horror Story, and True Detective.
On the first ever day of shooting on Stranger Things the boys all got the giggles because Finn Wolfhard sneezed during a take.
Dacre Montgomery, rather effectively, also did the voice for the evil Flayed version of Billy in season three. It's a very good piece of voice acting.
Netflix gave the go ahead for Stranger Things 2 before the first season had even been released. This was not officially announced though until a month after the first season came out. Although the Duffer Brothers had already started writing season two during this period they were not allowed to tell anyone.
Roads named Mt. Sinai, Cornwallis, and Kerley in Stranger Things are references to real places in North Carolina where the Duffer Brothers were raised.
The character of Mike Wheeler was originally going to have a large birthmark on his face but they didn't do this in the end.
The five stages of Demogorgon development are Pollywog, Frogogorgon, Catogorgon, Demodog, and Demogorgon.
Although it is a very old game now, statistics suggest that 40% of the people who play Dungeons & Dragons are under the age of 25.
Nancy has a classmate called Ally in season one. This could be a reference to Ally Sheedy of The Breakfast Club fame.
Synth music is a subgenre of new wave music that features the synthesizer as the dominant musical instrument. This type of music had its roots in the 1960s and 1970s. Synth music is a big part of the Stranger Things score.
Stranger Things was originally titled Montauk. Montauk is a hamlet at the east end of the Long Island peninsula and famed for its beaches. Ross and Matt Duffer, the brothers who created Stranger Things, were very inspired by Steven Spielberg's classic movie Jaws in their early plans for the show. One of the main reasons why the show was originally going to be set in Montauk is Camp Hero. Camp Hero (aka Montauk Air Force Station) is an abandoned military base in Montauk which gave rise to all manner of conspiracy theories. It was alleged in a book called The Montauk Project that Camp Hero used kidnapped children in experiments which included telekinesis and time travel. Most of the conspiracy theories involving Montauk are obviously considered to be fiction but the Duffers felt Camp Hero (with its many urban legends and alleged secrets) would be a great backdrop for a sci-fi fantasy horror show.
Most of the cast in Stranger Things were hired when the show was still going to be called Montauk. Montauk was eventually dropped as the location for the show because the Duffers, upon reflection, decided a coastal shoot would present technical and logistical problems that were probably best avoided. The weather on the coast was an obvious concern. When the location of the show was changed this obviously meant it couldn't be called Montauk anymore. The Duffers said they had a terrible time trying to think of a new title for the show but eventually came up with Stranger Things.
The Duffers said that when the name of the show was changed from Montauk to Stranger Things they got a long email from David Harbour complaining about this change. David Harbour thought that Stranger Things was a terrible new title for the show. He said it took him a long time to get used to it.
Matt Duffer said it was him who came up with the idea to call the show Stranger Things after Montauk was axed. However, his brother Ross Duffer (like David Harbour) disliked Stranger Things as the new title. Matt Duffer got his way though and Ross Duffer (like David Harbour) got used to the new title in the end.
Among the celebrities who say they enjoy playing Dungeons & Dragons are Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Vin Diesel, Stephen Colbert, and Jon Favreau.
The scene in Stranger Things 2 where Steve and Dustin gaze down the tunnel created by the escaped Dart is a homage to the scene in the 1994 film The Shawshank Redemption where the warden finds the tunnel in the wall that Andy Dufresne had dug to escape.
The Shawshank Redemption is based on a 1982 Stephen King novella called Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption.
The Millennium Falcon toy that Eleven levitates in season one is the 1980 Empire Strikes Back Millennium Falcon reissue from Kenner Toys.
In the very early plans for Montauk, the Duffer Brothers briefly considered the show taking place in a frosty winter backdrop of snow and ice.
The sight of Eleven and Max in red and yellow raincoats when they arrive at Heather's house in The Case Of The Missing Lifeguard is very striking and evokes everything from Don't Look Now to the child twins in Kubrick's The Shining.
The term Demogorgon is believed to derive from a mistranslated of an old Greek manuscript.
Netflix picked up over six million new subscribers in the last quarter of 2017. The release of Stranger Things 2 was plainly the biggest factor in these new subscriptions.
The Duffer Brothers originally intended for only around 20% of the special effects in season one to be computer generated in order to replicate the old school practical FX eighties aesthetic of the films they loved (Evil Dead, Hellraiser, The Thing etc) and which inspired Stranger Things but in the end this proved unrealistic. Computer generated effects eventually accounted for about 50% of what you see in season one.
Netflix wanted season one of
Publisher: BookRix GmbH & Co. KG
Publication Date: 02-22-2022
All Rights Reserved